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9.2. Indicative Curriculum for Practitioners

Pre-registration students should have the opportunity to gain detailed knowledge, understanding and skills to enable them to achieve the practitioner outcomes for autonomous practice in the following areas:

Behavioural and Social Science

Principles of psychology, sociology and social psychology
Psychological and sociological dimensions of caring for patients undergoing imaging and /or radiotherapy
The importance of self, self-awareness in developing and managing relationships 
Emotional intelligence and resilience
Patient centred practice, models of partnership working, enablers and barriers to working collaboratively
Communication in context; patients, carers, other Health and Social Care professionals
Information and support for patients, carers and significant others
Theories and concepts of health and illness
The organisation and management of Health and Social Care services within the UK
Developments and trends in legislation and Health and Social Care policy
Ethical and legal principles and models 
Legislative, policy and ethical frameworks that underpin, inform and influence the practice of radiographers including children and vulnerable adults 
The role of the radiographer, professional values and attributes, the role of the professional body and the code of professional conduct
Development of professions in the UK, professional regulation and the role of the Health and Care Professions Council
Principles of management
Theories of judgement and decision making in radiographic practice
Accountability, responsibility and assessment of risk
Definitions of knowledge; scientific and constructivist approaches.
Hierarchies of evidence
Selection and interpretation of evidence for imaging and/or radiotherapy practice
Reflective practice, models of reflection, learning and clinical supervision
Research and audit methods in health and social care

Physical Science and Technology

Physical principles of matter, atomic structure, radioactivity
Electricity and magnetism
The electromagnetic spectrum; heat, light, radio frequencies
X-ray production and interactions of photons with matter, related to image quality and radiation dose
Scatter properties related to image quality and radiation dose
Image acquisition, storage, retrieval and manipulation
Imaging exposure factors related to image quality and radiation dose
Sound; characteristics and properties
Principles of ultrasound imaging
Principles of magnetic resonance imaging
Principles of radionuclide imaging
Principles of radiobiology; stochastic and non-stochastic, genetic and somatic effects of radiation
Principles and application of radiation protection and the measurement of radiation dose
Principles of radiation dose minimisation and the ALARP ideal
Current European and UK legislation and regulations pertaining to the medical use of radiations
The roles of operator, practitioner and referrer as identified in IR(ME)R 2000 and its subsequent amendments
Capability, applications and range of technological equipment used for imaging and/or radiotherapy
Current developments and trends in technology and their applications
Principles of information and digital technologies
Quality assurance and control

Clinical Context and Applications (Radiotherapy)    

Normal and abnormal anatomy and pathophysiology across the lifespan with a particular emphasis on the development of cancer
Cell structure and cell division
Molecular biology related to tumour genesis 
Common types of cancer, histology, staging and grading
Methods of spread and their significance for treatment choice
Diagnosis, differential diagnosis and prognosis
The incidence and prevalence of cancer in the UK and worldwide
Causes of cancer; genetic, viral, lifestyle factors
The organisation and delivery of cancer services in the UK; recent developments
Imaging for cancer; diagnostic, pre-treatment and treatment monitoring. The use of x-ray-based, ultrasound, MR and radionuclide imaging
Treatments for cancer; the relative roles of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy
The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM)
Indications for the use of radiotherapy in cancer treatment
Radical and palliative treatment
Treatment modalities; external beam radiotherapy (EBRT), intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), image guided radiation therapy (IGRT), brachytherapy, radionuclides, particle beams; electron, neutron and proton therapies
Principles of adaptive radiotherapy
Side effects of radiotherapy and their management
Factors affecting the severity of side effects, toxicities and their measurement
Pharmacology and uses of drugs commonly encountered within radiotherapy and chemotherapy
Supply and administration of medicines
Principles of treatment simulation and planning
Outlining and voluming; clinical target volume (CTV), planning target volume (PTV), organs at risk
Principles of fractionation; biological effective dose (BED), Dose Volume Histograms
Conventional and inverse planning
Dose calculations
Principles of immobilisation, immobilisation devices 
On line/off line imaging for monitoring and verification
Pathways of care and treatment for common cancer types by anatomical system
The role of the radiographer in the cancer pathway; prevention, pre-treatment, planning, delivery, after care
Other uses of radiotherapy
Mandatory Training 

Clinical Context and Applications (Imaging) 

Normal and abnormal anatomy and pathophysiology from fetal life to old age with a particular emphasis on its demonstration on diagnostic images
Surface anatomy, radiographic terminology
Fracture classification, healing of fractures, pathology of musculo-skeletal system
Factors affecting the quality and acceptability of diagnostic images
Interpretation of diagnostic images
Structure and terminology in diagnostic image reports
The organisation and delivery of diagnostic imaging services in the UK; recent developments
Current trends and developments in applications and techniques applied in diagnostic imaging
Pharmacology of drugs commonly encountered within diagnostic imaging settings
The theory and practice of intra-venous administration
Supply and administration of medicines
Mandatory training
Assessment, monitoring and care of the patient before, during and after examination
Imaging of children and patients with specific needs
Processing and related technology supporting imaging systems
Manipulation of exposure and image recording parameters

Conventional radiography: 

Full range of plain radiographic examinations including trauma and non-standard imaging environments (eg theatre, ward based): 

  • appendicular and axial skeleton
  • chest, abdomen and soft tissue structures (including mammography)
  • standard contrast agent examinations 
  • mobile and fixed fluoroscopy including invasive or complex procedures that may include contrast agents 
  • dental imaging
  • principles of forensic imaging

Computed tomography: 

Techniques for the range of mainstream CT procedures to include:

  • standard head CT and examinations of the spine, chest and abdomen in acute trauma
  • standard contrast agent examinations

Magnetic Resonance Imaging:

Techniques for standard magnetic resonance imaging procedures

Principles and concepts underpinning:

  • specialised invasive and interventional procedures
  • ultrasound imaging 
  • radio-nuclide imaging
  • positron emission tomography
  • lithotripsy
  • bone densitometry 
  • complex image guided procedures, eg biopsy, aspiration, line placement

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