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Module Outlines

Managing People

The purpose of this module is to enable learners to focus on the key issues in the management of people in their organisations. It should draw on theoretical and applied approaches to managing people.

Learners will need to develop a knowledge and understanding of the:

  • contribution people make to organisational success and the key challenges associated with managing people in organisations;
  • main strategic approaches to people management and the links to business strategies;
  • scope of people management activities/practices outlining the key characteristics and contemporary debates associated with each human resource (HR) activity.

Curriculum content

Strategic approaches to people management and the links to business strategies.

The contribution people make to organisational success and the key challenges associated with managing people in organisations.

The scope of people management activities/practices outlining the key characteristics and contemporary debates associated with each HR activity.

Management styles, influencing and involving; motivating; negotiating skills; communication (listening). Understanding of organisational culture and the role of the individual within it.  

Agenda for change. Emotional intelligence. Managing conflict.  Performance management, disciplinary and grievance procedures. Performance-related pay. Giving and receiving feedback.  Appraisal, Multi Source Feedback. Developing networks.

 

Workforce: change, development, deployment and planning

The purpose of this module is to enable students to understand and identify the dynamics of factors impacting on the workforce, its development, deployment and planning.

Learners will need to develop a knowledge and understanding of:

  • key steps in workforce planning;
  • the importance of strategic planning and its alignment to the needs of imaging and radiotherapy and to the health workforce needs in general;
  • operational and capacity planning at departmental level.

Curriculum content

Government and NHS workforce policies.

Workforce planning, evidence, data-gathering.  

Workforce supply (ie supply of radiographers and other imaging staff).

Workforce demand (likely future requirements).

Forecasting, including the use of simple forecasting tools.

Workforce intelligence and profiling – shape, age, qualifications, skill mix, ratio of support staff to qualified, and ratio of different grades: assistant, practitioner, advanced practitioner and consultant practitioner.

Workforce analytics. Workforce investment.

Capacity and capabilities of providing a 24/7 service.

Scope of management at departmental level, role of imaging/radiotherapy managers vs medical clinicians.

Clinical and professional trends: changes in technologies and their impact on diagnostics and treatments and staff mix.  

Succession planning. 

Getting organisational buy-in to the plan, in particular:

Group dynamics and the powerful nature of groups;  

Influencing and networking skills;

Business planning, putting together a business case/cost benefit analysis.

 

LEAN

The purpose of this module is to enable learners to gain a theoretical and practical knowledge of LEAN and its application to radiology service evaluation and improvement.

Learners will need to develop the knowledge and understanding of:

  • the theory underpinning lean;
  • the application of lean theory to healthcare;
  • service evaluation using lean tools;
  • service improvement using lean tools.

Curriculum content

Lean philosophy: respect for people; elimination of waste.

Understanding lean principles:

  • Value: identifying value from the patient’s (or clinicians)perspective;
  • Value stream: identifying the value stream from start to end; creating a value stream-map (process map); value stream analysis; waste identification;
  • Flow: improving flow by elimination of waste and batching;
  • Pull: creating a system whereby the patient has their examination when they  need it;
  • Perfection: working towards perfection using visual management; process control boards; sustainment of change.

Identifying and using lean tools for evaluation of current state; use of data (qualitative and quantitative).

Identifying waste : transportation (of materials); inventory (over stocking); movement (of people); accidents; over production (ahead of demand); waiting (for next step); defects; over processing (of parts).

Assessing demand.

Determining value added vs non-value added tasks.

5S scoring: sort (get rid of waste); straighten (clean); safety; set for flow; sustain.

 

Service evaluation

The purpose of this module is to enable learners to be able to systematically appraise approaches to the evaluation of the delivery of imaging/radiotherapy services.

Learners will need to develop the knowledge and understanding of:

  • methodological approaches to the evaluation of radiology service delivery;
  • data analysis sources and their application in health services research  and evaluation of the radiology service;
  • ethical issues in health services research.

Curriculum content

Identifying aims and objectives and values of the imaging/radiotherapy service.

Types of evaluation, formative evaluation, process evaluation, impact/outcome evaluation. Clinical effectiveness, risk, audit; research, technology assessment.

Defining standards.

Efficacy, effectiveness and efficiency.

Project management, planning and development.

Methods of systemic collection of appropriate data.

Strategies for the evaluation of a service initiative.

PESTLE Analysis (Political, Economic, Sociological, Technological, Legal, Environmental).

 

Service improvement

The purpose of this module is to enable learners to understand and apply tools and techniques to bring about service improvement. 

Learners will need to develop the knowledge and understanding of:

  • techniques for service improvement in imaging and radiotherapy;
  • the use of improvement tools;
  • the use of data and measures of quality standards and cost effectiveness;
  • quality improvement and its impact on efficiency, and productivity of patient care.

Curriculum content

Process mapping, patient pathways in radiology and radiotherapy. Radiology tool kit.

Fundamentals for quality improvement; quality and service improvement tools. Facilitation guides.

Service change. Project management.

Performance management; understanding.

Bottlenecks and constraints,

Batching of work, flow theory and modelling, control charts. Variations, queuing theory, patient booking.

Outcome measurement and effectiveness.

Lean – reduce waste.

Service improvement tool kits.

Sustainability; theoretical models.

Patient perspectives. Commissioner’s perspective.

Systems thinking: Where are you?

Patient and user feedback; Data analysis, historical; data mining; trends: systems/budget

Where do you need to be? service specifications – commissioners. Targets – local/national. Costs – budget management; cost reduction.

What needs to change: people; process; equipment; measurement.

Project management; case study approaches to service improvement; small scale; single vs multiple.

 

Data evaluation and presentation

The purpose of this module is to enable learners to collect, analyse and present data for the evaluation of imaging/radiotherapy services. It is designed to support learners prior to undertaking their major project. 

Learners will need to develop a knowledge and understanding of:

  • methods of data collection in a range of investigative procedures
  • working to ethical standards;
  • the effective presentation of data;
  • report writing consistent with professional standards.

Curriculum Content

Data collection methods. The importance of a baseline.

Sampling and sampling methodology: random sampling and stratified sampling.

Accuracy, sensitivity and specificity.

Efficiency, efficacy and effectiveness. 

Use of descriptive and inferential statistical procedures.

Ethical considerations relevant to interventions and data collection.

Formulating, executing, analysing and reporting on the results of well-designed investigations.

Data presentation and methods, report writing.

 

Managing change

The purpose of this module is to enable learners to analyse and evaluate the dynamic nature of managing change.

Learners will need to develop a knowledge and understanding of the:

  • complexities surrounding change;
  • approaches to managing change;
  • the importance addressing challenges of change.

Curriculum Content

Core concepts of change: managing a change project, conceptualisation.

Change agents. Change at different levels: organisational, team, individual. 

Critical incident driven change, data-driven change.

Process models of change: incremental, transformational.

People and change: resistance, motivation eg adaptors, innovators, communication (engagement), participating in change, culture (readiness for change).

Tools and strategies: change management toolbox, workshops, drivers.

Evaluating and managing risks.

Forcefield analysis.

Leadership of change, identifying future leaders.

Training and development.

PESTLE analysis Political, Economic, Sociological, Technological, Legal, Environmental.

 

Coaching and supporting staff

The purpose of this module is to enable learners to understand the role of coaching in leadership, develop their own skills in coaching and be able to evaluate a range of approaches to coaching.

Learners will need to develop a knowledge and understanding of the:

  • underpinning theoretical perspectives and research which inform the role of a coach in leading;
  • range of skills/techniques appropriate to coaching;
  • variety of approaches to coaching;
  • evaluation of a range of skills appropriate to coaching with reference to their own personal and professional practice, and those of others.

 

Curriculum Content

Coaching theory.

Coaching models and theoretical base eg GROW (Goal, current Reality, Options (or Obstacles) and Will (or Way forward), principles/practicalities: equality, choice, dialogue (inclusive), application of learning to real life scenarios.

Peer coaching for supporting each other.

Principles of mentorship.

Management and leadership.

Team and individual dynamics of adult learning: how they learn, training and development theories.

Personal competencies: reflective practices, reflection in practice; active listening.

Questioning skills – right strategy, right question, right time.

Communicating with people, individuals and groups. 

 

Finance and costing

The purpose of this module is to enable learners to: examine and evaluate topical issues within the financial field.

Learners will need to develop a knowledge and understanding of:

  • the regulatory and governance frameworks in financial systems;
  • finance within its health organisational context;
  • current issues in the field of NHS finance;
  • financial aspects and costing of imaging and radiotherapy services.

Curriculum content

Principles – legislation, transparency, value for money, scheme of delegation, tendering, stock-take, cash efficiency programmes (local re-investment plans) invoicing/receipting, methods of cost control.

Types of money: eg capital/revenue/endowment funds.

Types of maintenance contracts or preventative maintenance vs fully comprehensive, capital charges.  

Organisation: standing financial instructions (SFIs).

Business planning. Developing business cases eg case study: replacement of  imaging/radiotherapy equipment.

Budgeting: staff costs, agenda for change; maintenance, consumables eg contrast agents, catheters, stents.

Planning: anticipation of staff increments, cost increases (case study: new products to market eg stent)

Negotiation: tendering, procurement for parity.

Achieving cost savings.

 

Conclusion

This report has identified modules which sector experts consider constitute the minimum necessary for a management development programme for imaging and radiotherapy managers.  The module outlines have set out their purpose, their outcomes in terms of knowledge and understanding along with an indicative content.  There is scope for HEIs to determine (in agreement with the SCoR) the level at which they offer any validated modules and awards to which they contribute ie postgraduate certificate, diploma or masters and agree credit ratings on that basis. 

The initial potential market for the modules/award is around 2,000 radiographers and it is anticipated that the programme could be offered to other groups within the Allied Health Professions.

We are aware that managers in the NHS are busy - and are likely to become even busier as the current economic conditions continue to impact on services – so the outline delivery for a programme should be designed to take into account the minimal amount of time that managers can afford to spend away from their jobs. Therefore, it may be attractive to managers to access modules through the workplace and/or on-line as well as attending an HEI.  However, delivery is a matter for an education provider to discuss with the SCoR when seeking accreditation.

The themes implicit within the modules are recommended to the SCoR as a basis for validation and/or accreditation of programmes and set out the minimum requirements of continuing/postgraduate professional development courses for which validation is  requested from the College.

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